‘I was, I am, I shall be’? Rosa Luxemburg in Polish and German Memory
The article applies the concept of lieu de mémoire to one of the most intriguing personalities of Polish and German history. Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg) has been an object of manifold commemorations and re-interpretations within the Communist movement as well as apart from it. The authors analyze the role of Luxemburg in the politics of state socialism and in the context of Communist revisionism. In addition, they refer to her symbolic meaning in the protest movement of 1968 in West Germany. Finally, a section of this article is devoted to the place of Luxemburg in the topo-graphy and iconography of Berlin. The article combines the methodological approach of Historical Memory Studies with the methods of bilateral and entangled histories.